SOS Children’s Villages Nepal scheduled our presentation on Monday 10th September 2012 in National Training Centre Kavre. We were supposed to presented in e-Library: FOSS in education. We managed our session for presenting combine by me Hempal dai and Ravi dai. We started our session for 9 am, from the topic of Library.
What is Library
Collection of information resources in print or in other forms that is organized and made accessible for reading or study.
A library is a collection of information, sources, resources, books, and services, and the structure in which it is housed: it is organized for use and maintained by a public body, an institution, or a private individual. In the more traditional sense, a library is a collection of books. The term can mean the collection, the building that houses such a collection, or both.
- A place in which literary and artistic materials, such as books, periodicals, newspapers, pamphlets, prints, records, and tapes, are kept for reading, reference, or lending.
- A collection of such materials, especially when systematically arranged.
- A room in a private home for such a collection.
- A commercial establishment that lends books for a fee.
- A series or set of books issued by a publisher.
- genetics A collection of cloned DNA sequences whose location and identity can be established by mapping the genome of a particular organism.
History of Library
Early libraries (2600 BC – 800 BC)
- The first libraries consisted of archives of the earliest form of writing – the clay tablets in cuneiform script discovered in temple rooms in Sumer, some dating back to 2600 BC.
- Over 30,000 clay tablets from the Library of Ashurbanipal have been discovered at Nineveh
- Figure of Tablet from the Library of Ashurbanipal containing part of the Epic of Gilgamesh
Classical period (800 BC – 500 AD)
- The Library of Alexandria, in Egypt, was the largest and most significant great library of the ancient world.
- Private or personal libraries made up of written books appeared in classical Greece in the 5th century BC.
- In the West, the first public libraries were established under the Roman Empire as each succeeding emperor strove to open one or many which outshone that of his predecessor. Unlike the Greek libraries, readers had direct access to the scrolls, which were kept on shelves built into the walls of a large room. Reading or copying was normally done in the room itself.
Middle Ages (501 AD – 1400 AD)
- By the 8th century first Iranians and then Arabs had imported the craft of papermaking from China, with a paper mill already at work in Baghdad in 794.
- By the 9th century public libraries started to appear in many Islamic cities. They were called “halls of Science” or dar al-‘ilm. They were each endowed by Islamic sects with the purpose of representing their tenets as well as promoting the dissemination of secular knowledge.
- Buddhist scriptures, educational materials, and histories were stored in libraries in pre-modern Southeast Asia. In Burma, a royal library called the Pitaka Taik was legendarily founded by King Anawrahta in the 18th century
- From the 15th century in central and northern Italy,
17th and 18th centuries
- The 17th and 18th centuries include what is known as a golden age of libraries
- Shift to digital libraries: In the 21st century there has been increasing use of the Internet to gather and retrieve data.
Types of Library
- National libraries
- Research libraries
- Reference libraries
- Public lending libraries
- Academic libraries
- Children’s libraries
- Special libraries
e-Library also known as Digital Library also known as virtual Library.
Providing a definition of the term “elibrary” is difficult; even a recently published dictionary may not give a good one-sentence definition. In part, this confusion comes from the fact that “elibrary” can mean different things to different people, depending on their perception of the concept. For example, someone with a background in computer science may view a elibrary as networked or distributed information system, while a librarian may define a elibrary as a digital counterpart of the physical library. Actually, a elibrary may encompass either of these concepts.
A potentially virtual organisation, that comprehensively collects, manages and preserves for the long depth of time rich digital content, and offers to its targeted user communities specialised functionality on that content, of defined quality and according to comprehensive codified policies.
Advantages of eLibrary
- Digital libraries have become a means of easily and rapidly accessing books, archives and images of various types.
- Traditional libraries are limited by storage space; digital libraries have the potential to store much more information
- No physical boundary.
- Round the clock availability: people can gain access 24/7
- Multiple access: same resources can be used simultaneously by a number of institutions and patrons
- Information retrieval: user-friendly interfaces, giving clickable access to its resources.
- Preservation and conservation: Better than analog materials.
- Added value
Challenges of e-Library
- Digital preservation
- Copyright and u: republication of material on the web by libraries may require permission from rights holders
- Metadata creation: Searchability
- Access to Technology
- User’s ability to retrieve information
Example of eLibrary
- Google Scholar
- Google Books
- Million Book Project
- Internet Archive
- Project Gutenberg
- Open Content
- Open Educational Resources
- Khan Academy
- Open / virtual / online University
- Open Culture movements
- Midas EduKit
China: Peking University digital library
An experimental collection was created by the Chinese Department at Peking University with the assistance of a New Zealand Digital Library project member who visited there some years ago. The collection contains rubbings of Tang Dynasty poetry, whose originals were carved into wood or stone. These are collections of images, but the text has been hand-entered into electronic form.
India: Archives of Indian Labor
A Collaborative project between the National Labour Institute and the Association of Indian Labour Historians, the Archives of Indian Labour are dedicated to preserving and making accessible historic documents on the Indian working class. This library, which is in the English language, contains collections on the All India Trade Union Congress (1928-96), the Commission on Labour (1930-1991), an Oral History of the Labour Movement in India, and special collections on key events in India’s labour history.
Russia: Mari El Republic government information
The regional government department in the Mari El Republic of the Russian Federation has built several Russian-language collections. Most of the collections are administrative, but one contains folk tales. This site is interesting because, by themselves and on their own initiative, the site operators added a Russian-language interface to Greenstone, which at the time offered several other different user interface languages. Since then, interfaces in languages such as Hebrew and Indonesian have been added to the standard list. The current list includes Arabic, Chinese, Dutch, English, French, German, Hebrew, Indonesian, Italian, Maori, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, and Turkish.
India: Indian language demonstrations
Indian languages are particularly difficult to deal with because operating system (Windows) support for them tends to lag behind that for other widely-used languages. The Indian Institute of Science at Bangalore has built a demonstration collection that gives examples in both the Hindi (Devanagari) language and the Kannada language. To view these properly requires downloading special fonts; the sample pages give an example of each.
United Kingdom: Gresham College Archives
This collection includes all lectures given at Gresham College, London, from 1987, along with many other special publications, such as the Brief History of Gresham College (1597-1997). It is divided manually into the various subjects covered by the College. The collection is also issued on a standalone Greenstone CD-ROM that self-installs on any Windows computer and is accessed through a Web browser in exactly the same way as the online version.
United Kingdom: Kids’ digital library
A project at Middlesex University has been experimenting with a “Kids’ digital library,” deployed in a school in North London. Children can submit stories and poems to the library, which contains a collection of their work. Teachers can monitor submissions before they are incorporated. This project has involved significant changes to Greenstone at the coding level, which is possible because Greenstone is open source software.
International UNESCO Project
Digital libraries are radically reforming how information is disseminated and acquired in UNESCO’s partner communities and institutions in the fields of education, science and culture around the world, particularly in developing countries. The Greenstone project is an international cooperative effort with UNESCO established in August 2000. This initiative will encourage the effective deployment of digital libraries to share information and place it in the public domain. The version, released in August 2002, is monolingual (English), but a trilingual version is about to be released with all interfaces, help text, documentation (several hundred pages of user guides and developer manuals), and installation instructions and readme files in English, French and Spanish.
eLibrary implementation in Nepal
- LTSP (Linux Terminal Server Project) deployments in remote schools in Dang, Godawari, Dailekh, Sudal, Dhading, Sindhupalchowk, Dhulikhel, Udayapur, Lamjung by Madan Puraskar Pustakalaya, Help Nepal Network, and FOSS Nepal
- LTSP being deployed in 10 schools in Kathmandu by Kathmandu University
- One Laptop Per Child (OLPC) being implemented in 26 remote schools in 6 districts by Open Learning Exchange (OLE) Nepal