e-Teaching, e-Learning and e-Education

There was a time when pupils went to Saint‘s home, served them and in return got some knowledge what they taught them. Later teacher and student relation was sluggishly changing into a time between 10 mins . That means after 10 mins in class, students can also be wise as teacher. But now a time is utterly changing, education systems are changing, education standards are being global. Where teacher and student are both equally accomplished constitutes, who are responsible for knowledge exploration. People believe school is just a platform for innovation where teacher and student use to be, so for learning either you can be in home or anyplace no matter what geographical area. And this is only possible from e-Education.

First go on the glimpse of development of modern education in Nepal. This formal education of Nepal was first start form 1853; but that was not for normal people, it was only for ruling family or relatives.    After the ended of autocratic Rana ruling in Nepal, general people began to study after 1951.In last 50-60 years the statistics shows the dramatics expansion in education facility in Nepal. According to those census data of 2001, adult literacy (age 15+) of the country was reported to be 48.2% where female: 34.6% and male: 62.2%, from about 5% in 1952–54. Beginning from about 300 schools and two colleges with about 10,000 students in 1951, there were 49,000 schools (including higher secondary), 415 colleges, five universities, and two academies of higher studies in 2001. Altogether 7.2 million students are enrolled in those schools and colleges who are served by more than 222,000 teachers.  And current census data of 2011, total adult literacy increased up to 60.3%, including 73% male and 48.3% female literacy and increasing of 1000s of schools and colleges. Is this enough? When will we reach on 100%? Does these data resemble for quality education? Is there equal educational distribution over the Nation? Why these is still unemployment after education? There are still number of questions. And I believe there are also numbers of answer of it. One of the most relevant answers may be stated as e-Education.


What is e?

It is quite common for us to hear some term eShopping, eBanking, eEntertainment and now this term come with education. The “e” stands for electronic and it relates to the use of the Internet to undertake the wide range of activities. Educators are now beginning to be used with terms like e- teaching, e-learning and e- education as it slightly becomes part of our regular vocabulary.


Who are e-Teachers?

e-Teachers are not just limited in some closed room sounds like inside the box, e-Teacher are the new generation of teachers who will work in an Internet environment in both regular and virtual classroom situations. e-Teachers collaborate, build and discover new learning communities and explore resources as they interact with information, materials and ideas with their students and colleagues.


What is e-Learning?

e-Learning is learning which takes place as a result of experiences and interaction in an Internet environment. It is not restricted to a regular school day and can take place in a variety of locations including home, school and community locations e.g. libraries, cafes etc.


What is e-Education?

e-Education involves e-Teaching and e-Learning along with the various administrative and strategic measures needed to support teaching and learning in an Internet environment. It will incorporate a local, regional, national and international view of education.


Why Technology in Education?

Technology is a cross-cutting resource that should be seen as a sustainable, accessible, and valuable means of supporting efforts to improve teaching, learning, school operations, and the education sector as a whole. This e-Education is making this world borderless, people from country like Nepal can also be part of some university like MIT, Standford University, Udacity . When I did some inquiry about the involvement of Nepali Student in some of international Universities, who make available the online education, the result was really interesting, lot of Nepali are still persuading these online education as well some are also teaching to other students from here too.

First Mozilla Nepal Meetup

The first ever Mozilla Nepal Community Meetup was held at FOSS Nepal Office on 26th August 2012. It was introductory meetup without agenda or better to say it was first meeting for formalization of Mozilla Nepal. Actually meeting was initiated by Avash Mulmi, Nirmal and some guys. The idea behind the establishment of this community tends to contribution for Nepal.

There was 19 full of zip participants, and lots of time discussed about what we can do. It was introductory meeting but discussed about the localization in Nepal, previous work out in localization and upcoming practice.

Finally, we conclude some points in first meeting.

  • Participation in SFD 2012, we may either do some hackathon or interest growing session.
  • Creating independent mail group
  • From now, any contribution from single person will append with Mozilla Nepal.
  • Web portal

Here are some more details about Mozilla Nepal.


Instead of individual contribution to the Mozilla Project and Open Source Community, Mozilla Nepal inclines to play role as a Team of Volunteer and FOSS enthusiastic.

Who can join?

Anyone interested can join here with strong dedication no matter how, when and where.

What are benefits?

  • Learning, this will be the platform for learning about new thing happen globally.
  • Creating Eco-System of World IT movement in Nepal.
  • Exposure and Connection, nice platform to work with different new faces from different places.
  • Contribution for the shaping the future of web.
  • Last but not least, this will make thing happens.

How can Contribute?

It is not like that you should technically sound for contributing Mozilla, but here are some area of interest that you can pick up.

  • Helping Users
  • Testing and QA
  • Coding
  • Marketing and Evangelism
  • Localization
  • Add-ons
  • Visual Design
  • Developer Documents
  • Accessibility
  • System Administration
  • User Research
  • Education



Software Freedom Day, one of the largest festival for all Free and open source techno lover, Some nepalease say this is a dashian festival for nepali  open source lovers and supporters. FOSS Nepal celebrate the day with several events like FOSS ka Kura, documentary show, distro demo, Chautari and many more in Nepal. Today I got the chance to know lot about it.

 Actually SFD is started from 2004 in world, that time it was done in second week of September.

 After one year i.e.in2005, FOSS Nepal started to celebrate SFD in Nepal. It was done in yala maya Kendra Lalitpur in support of MPP. There were around 200-500 participants.

Second time in 2006, other colleges were also involved in SFD.

Third time in 2007, there were lot of events including Documentary Show, Distro Demo, FOSSials and many more. Some candle lightening and marching also had done from Tinkune to maitighar. It was most spectacular event; there were different team distributions from Event management team, FOSSials team, website team and some other.

Most interesting, FOSS Nepal Community won Best Event Award for organizing SFD. Here is a wiki for more details http://wiki.fossnepal.org/index.php?title=Software_Freedom_Day_2007


Fourth Time in 2008, FOSS Nepal continue SFD and more better event than previous one, FOSS Nepal Community again won Best Event Award

Here is wiki for details:



Fifth Time in 2009,There was a excessive support from every sector including Government body, Private Sector and other public Organization to make this event prodigious. FOSS Nepal  Community had done hattrick that time for wining that award.

Here is a wiki for more details



Sixth Time in 2010, SFD was distributed in other college and other districts. Some college included NCIT, KU, Gandaki College were organized in their own level and own domain.

Seventh Time same as Sixth one

In this way FOSS Nepal celebrated 7 SFD years, every time it has been gone more better and more matured way, every time more FOSS chapters are organizing this event even very nicely,  I heard CAN Kavre is also going for celebrating this day and OSAC(Open Source Ascol Circle) too is also going to organize this event for first time.

Although there is going number of parallel events but there arises a high demand of central or centralized Software Freedom Day from all the Open Source Enthusiastic.

Android Workshop: From Hello World to the market

Google Developers Group Kathmandu(GDG-KTM), Mobile Social Networking and Open Source Klub(NOSK) are jointly organizing workshop called “Android Workshop” in this coming Saturday, 25th August 2012. To address the most demandable technology android, these social organizations are moving all together. The workshop will guide android enthusiast and beginners to move one step up and ahead in the field. The theme of this program is very simple “From Hello World to the Market” but it is very interesting. It tries to cover two perspectives, one this will be very initial kick out for the beginner, who wanna start to develop in android platform and next for the others who want to know how to promote your product in local and global market. This workshop is designed for a half day. Here is a detail of content of workshop. https://plus.google.com/u/0/events/cvj6l8j2qk8urs7v0sr7a07ala0/104003514155874791868

  • Introduction to android development : Presentation (30 Minutes)
  •  Training Session – sdk setup, android history, using eclipse ADK (1 & 1/2 hour)
    Ref: http://mobilenepal.net/events/android-training-beginners
  •  Local developer’s perspective in Android Development (30 minutes)
    – how to publish apps, easiest way to pay play store fee, play store analytics for apps, how to handle user feedback, developers perspective in app development
  •  Local enterprise experience in Android Development (30 minutes)
    – reaching users, marketing apps, how to solve local problems with mobile apps, enterprise experience

Detail Schedule of whole Program:

  • 12:50 – 13:00 – Registration
  • 13:00 – 13:30 – Introduction to android development : Presentation
  • 13:30 – 15:30 – Training Session – sdk setup, android history, using
    eclipse ADK
  • 15:30 – 16:00 – Refreshment
  • 16:00 – 16:30 – Local developer’s perspective in Android Development -how to publish apps, easiest way to pay play store fee, play storeanalytics for apps, how to handle user feedback, developersperspective in app development
  • 16:30 – 17:00 – Local enterprise experience in Android Development –
    reaching users, marketing apps, how to solve local problems with
    mobile apps, enterprise experience

Each session will follow query (10-20 minutes) where participants will be able to ask questions to the presenters.

The workshop is designed for only 40 participants, Each participants should fill this form https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/viewform?formkey=dGx6ZVJraGpublBNTE83cndHX2EwVmc6MQ. so only selected participants can take part in it. To participate in this workshop the participants should have:

  • Laptop necessary with Android SDK already setup
  • Fill up the form and must get conformation email from organizers.
  • Pay Rs.100 per participants( spent on food / stationery)

If you have interest to know about Organizers, here is a link:


View GPA Nepal in a larger map


Exploring IT opportunities:1st University Industry Tie-up

Published in The Himalyan Times

KATHMANDU: The CSIT Association of Nepal (CSITAN) — an association of students studying Computer Science and Information Technology in various colleges organised the ‘1st University Industry Tie-up’ programme on April 7 at Smriti Bhawan, Tribhuvan University, Kritipur.

More than 200 participants attended the programme which was designed in three sessions — inauguration, presentation and interaction — to help the students of BSc CSIT explore the needs of industries that make use of information technology (IT) and let the industry know about the current scenario and situation of BSc CSIT students and the course itself.

Ganesh Shah, former Minister for Science and Technology and Prof Dr Subarna Shakya, Assistant Dean, Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering inaugurated the programme.

Dipak Pudasaini from Amrit Science Campus introduced the BSc CSIT course to all participants and Dr Shakya informed about the need of the course in the university.

In the presentation, seven participating companies — Bajra and Bajra, Deerwalk, Ebperls, Hewaei, Mahoo Nepal, Young Innovative and Young Minds put forth their projects, and informed the students about the ways to apply for internship in their companies. In the interaction session students interacted with representatives of companies and dropped resumés for internship.

This event was supported by different CSIT colleges. The event was successful for it was able to highlight the industry’s need while collaborating with the industry even though all participants could not get an opportunity for internship.

ICT Nepal

Old Article(http://nprkshn.wordpress.com/2011/03/17/ict-nepal/)

Nepal is the country locked by the largest two countries India and China. The variation in the structure is also another geographical identification of Nepal.  Although it is small in map but we are always survive under the various large problems. Today, we have ability to talk about different technology either about past, present or future. We really feel something pride for knowing about this. Really, we are interested for upcoming new technology and looking chances for either free or else. After this point we try to analysis  a condition of Technology of our country only on the basis of analysis of us and predict as in coming 5 years everyone will have own PC and in coming 10 years we will have every things in our browser ,e-governance, ecommerce, etc.
If we left our capital and start to analysis a condition of technology from some other village then we realized we are still 25 years behind then other powerful country. Then how can we gain our goals that were predicted only on basis of few high societies although our country is listed one of the poorest country of the world. So we have to wake up and try for better of our country. We have to change the conventional mentality of our family and societies. Although we are in 21st century, but our education pattern, administrative pattern, working pattern are still in 19th century. Now our competition is not only between us but also with world. ICT is a most important aspect of today’s world. We cannot imagine our day to day life without ICT. Undeniably to a large extent, the success of any sector or organization today depends on the application and effectiveness of the ICT. The scheme to provide ICT literacy and enhance the knowledge of ICT students and professional in Nepal has a slow progress and is not sufficient.
It is difficult to developed implementable policy to built knowledge base society and industry in the absence of well defined frame of reference. We have first IT policy 2000 provided a broad framework for the development of the IT sector in the country. Which consolidate the foundation for national economic growth and better living-standards for the next five years starting from the 2000. IT Policy 2004 (draft) plans for economic consolidation, and development and strengthening of democratic norms and values through IT. Especially, through efficient distribution of economic resources, the policy seeks to contribute to raising the living standards and eventually towards the reducing the poverty. Also government established Telecommunication Policy 2060 to create favorable environment for making IT service reliable and accessible to all people at reasonable cost with private sector in order to support social and economic development of the country. To implement objective of policy we have also IT bodies, organizations, communities, societies. High Level Commission for Information Technology (HLCIT) is the one of the largest   key institutions formed by Government of Nepal to provide crucial oversight and policy guidance for the development of ICT sector in the country, National Information Technology Center (NITC), Computer Association of Nepal,(CAN) IT Professional Forum(ITPF), ISP Association of Nepal, and other Business Associations have driven the country towards the use of ICT in economic development.
Although political, economical, social and technological challenges are available in our country. Today, Government is willing to decentralize the responsibilities and processes throughout the system called e-government. Where government rule the country directly focused for the facilitation or empowerment of the peoples of the country. In the context of Nepal there are about 32000 villages and the most of villages are in hilly areas. Those villages are still out of direct connection to the government. So for the entering the e-government, first of all developing the e-village may be Golden Gate. For establishing the e-village the government can provide most of the services such as policy making, birth and death registration, application for citizenship, passport and driving license, personal ID for TAX etc. To implement this services awareness of local people or villagers is most important. From 2065 government of Nepal started the primary level of gateway program in villages and from 2066 also some radio program.
Today our government of Nepal is starting the Telecentres from the rural areas of Nepal so that people can access to the world of information, technology and communication that helps people to get information about the world market and technology. Telecentres are established with a view of providing Communication Technology to the people of urban and rural areas. Its main objective is to provide computer, Internet, and email technology facilities to the people of under-privileged society. Government of Nepal in its 10th five-year plan has aimed to establish 1500 rural telecentres within the kingdom, with strategic focus on content development and social appropriation, sustainability and community ownership issues. So government of Nepal has conducted different program for people of rural areas like Nepal Rural Telecenter, Centres, Telecentres, Rural Education, Agriculture Enterprise Center, Health,  e-government, Farmers, Bee keepers, Dairy producers,   Women  Association, citizenship, passport.mht etc. Therefore farmers, consumers and others will get easily their required information at any time. Although Nepal is the agriculture based country, 80% Nepalese people are depends upon agriculture,   so these type of program make more profit to farmers so that they can get their better price and also consumer also get their required things on reasonable price. This system will get ride upon conventional system. And this will create the better environment for developing the e-government in future.
As a developing country, Nepal has availed of the opportunity to rapidly develop various sectors such as education, health, agriculture, tourism, trade, among others, using information technology. It is very possible that the international community will extend its support to developing countries in the development of information & communication technology. Such assistance will certainly be significant for the national development of a least developed country like Nepal. The extensive application of this technology will give rise to economically strong, development of democratic norms and values, proportional distribution of economic resources and means and enhancement of public awareness. Hence, knowledge of Information & communication Technology is required to develop IT society in the shortest time possible for the sake of the national economy. So we need  informative program for  student and teacher of school as well as campus, which provide the knowledge of information & communication technology and encourage them to interested in computer based education and activities. It will give the knowledge to IT student of Nepal about ICT status of Nepal and give the information about ICT sector of Nepal.  It will be the lesson for other IT personal that they can do any type of program like this in their village or town and that will help to demonstrate or develop the IT Nepal. The major responsibilities for developing Nepal as ICT Nepal is for HLCIT, NITC and others but also there may be some role and responsibility by us developing our country as we are the real citizen of our country. It is not far to be our village as e-village, education as e-education, medical as e-medical and government as e-government.

Egovernance: Introduction

Old Article (http://technetnepal.net/blogs/prakash/archive/2010/07/22/egovernance-1-introduction.aspx)

I am trying to just making clear about egovernment and it’s condition in Nepal. In different program, seminar, different conference and in different presentation we option see and hear that every ICT personnal and expert were making their sound loud about it.But what actually is egoverment ???To make clear about it I take idea from different paper and presentation.so I specially like to thanks that personal Dr. Subarna shakya, Dr. Madan P. Pariyar and Adeel Ghayur

Different people are differently define the egoverment ; Some of people define Egovernment as digital governmental information and some of the people regard egovernment as consisting of creation of website, where information about political and government issues is presented.These defination are narrow and cannot conceptualize the multidimentional and complex defination of Egovernment. So I am forwarding some of general defination about this:

“Government’s use of technology, particularly web-based Internet applications, to enhance the access to and delivery of government information and service to citizens, business partners, employees, other agencies, and government entities,”

“the continuous optimization of service delivery, constituency participation, and governance by transforming internal and external relationships through technology, the Internet, and new media.”

e-Government has  been defined as ‘the use of ICT to promote more efficient and effective government, facilitate more accessible government services, allow greater public access to information, and make government more accountable to citizens.

Abramson and Means egovernment can be defined as the electronic interaction between government ,the public and employees

World Bank e-Government is the government owned or operated system of information and Communication Technology that transform relation with citizens, the private sector and/or other government agencies so as to promote citizens ‘ empowerment, improve service delivery, strenghten accountability, increase transparency, or improve government efficiency.

That means egovernment is using  an IT(information and Technology) by  government agencies inorder to create the relation citizen, business and other government sectors.These technologies can serve a variety of different ends: better delivery of government services to citizens, improved interactions with businesses and industries, citizen empowerment through access of information, or more efficient government management.Such that we  have revenue growth, reducing  corruption, increasing transparency and profit, greater convenience as result of using it.

E-Governance Theories

1. Rationalism Theory

New tools will be utilized to help in better decision making and optimizing governance processes. The theory in itself is divided into:

1. Ocean TheoryApplication of e-governance and following the popular trend and adopting the ways of the leaders.

2. Peninsula TheoryApplying the tools for e-governance but at the same time taking steps to keep the cultural and traditional heritage and values within the community.

2. Island Theory

Island or Control Theory implies that the e-government tools would be used for better control of the populace. This theory is based on the concept of “information is control”.

3. Flood Theory

Also called Noise Theory is based on the fact that e-government tools such as Internet gives too much information for e-governance procedures such as decision making.

4. Cloud Theory

Cloud Theory implies that technology will not have much impact on decision making. Changes in governance and government are socially and politically driven and Internet is one of the means.

5. Tempest Theory

Tempest or Chaos theory implies that e-government tools such as Internet would make a government loose control – mainly by malpractices.

Importance of Egovernment

The importance of egovernment is closely inter-relaed with importance of good government in country.we can see that good government as in exercise of administrative,political and economic authority to manage affair and transaction of country in each and every level.The main importance of egovernment is to support and simplify egovernance for all parties, government, citizen and business.So I am trying to list out some points which make more clear about it’s objective and importance.

  1. Better delivery of government services to citizens
  2. Improved interactions with businesses ,industries, and  citizen empowerment through access of information and Communication Technology.
  3. Supporting economic growth and poverty reduction, through improved access to ICTs.
  4. Strengthening tenets of good governance –  efficiency, transparency, accountability, and inclusiveness
  5. 1024×768 Normal 0 false false false Fulfilling changed expectations of citizens –They expect the service from government as they get from private business.
  6. 1024×768 Normal 0 false false false Generating information and knowledge in line with socio-economic dynamism.
  7. 1024×768 Normal 0 false false false Ensuring citizen centricity (also extended to include businesses) and service orientation (amidst changing level of expectations at par with private sector entities)

Egovernance  Type:-


An egovernment Model

The main part that can be distinruished in egovernment are government , citizen and business.so the main common interaction in egovernance are G2C(Government to Citizen), G2B(Government  to Bosiness) and G2G(Government to Government) which is clearly shown in above  figure.Gartner, an International Consultancy firm, has formulated a four phas e-government model.This can serve as a reference for government to position where a project fits in overall evolution of an egovernance strategy. Most government start by delivering online information, but public demand and internal efficiency soon require more complex services.According to Gartner, egovernance will mature according to following four phases:

  1.       Information Presence
  2.         Interaction intake process
  3.      Transaction Complete transaction
  4.       Transformation Integration and Changes


The model did not imply that all institution have to go through all phases and alla at the same time. On the contrary, in western world government institution are in only three phases 1, 2 or 3.

Egovernance-2: Why egovernance in Nepal

Old Article(http://technetnepal.net/blogs/prakash/archive/2010/08/20/egovernance-2-why-egov-in-nepal.aspx)

As I already discuss about introduction of e-Government in my previous blogs. Where I regard egovernment as the use of information and communications technologies (ICT) to transform the traditional government by making it accessible, transparent, effective and accountable. E-government does not give any meaning of putting a numbers of  computers on the desks of government officials and also It is not limited on  just a government website on the Internet. More then this Political, social, economic and technological aspects determine e-governance. It establishes a relationship between government officials , citizens and Business, and this  provide a  greater access to government information and services by making the government accessible online; promoting citizen participation by enabling citizens to interact more conveniently with government officials. I again thanks to Dr. Madan P. Pariyar and Rajesh Shakya.  


Why e-Government in Nepal?

We often listened a sound about “New Nepal”. Every politician make this word a slogan and make their sound loud in the mass. We are in the transition period in process of building “New Nepal”. But this word should not become only a popular slogan as most of politician do. People have some trust and aspirations with this word “New Nepal” that geared towards the peace and progress. There are many dimensions streamlined and drivers identified to make our “New Nepal” dreams come true. One of such dimensions is the reformation of the government. That means to say governance and its service process should be well reengineered to fulfill the aspirations of its citizens. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and its tools can help its effective and efficient transformation.


•          e-government helps simplify processes and makes access to government information more easily accessible for public sector agencies and citizens

•          greater citizen participation on government works.

•          e-government allows citizens to interact with computers to achieve objectives at any time and any location, and eliminates the necessity for physical travel to government agents sitting behind desks and windows

•          e-government include efficiency, improved services, better accessibility of public services, and more transparency and accountability

•          support economic growth and reduce poverty by improving ICT accessibilities and developing e-government applications

•          provide better and efficient Service to the Public

•          prove government as an efficient good Government

•          E-Government can fulfil the mandate of government formulating a new vision of how government views its citizens, employees and businesses, and building a citizen-centred, service-oriented, public-participative government with efficient, accountable, transparent and performance government system.

•          provide citizen-centered services for improving citizens’ convenience, including: provision of on-line public service, provision of multi-channel delivery

•          provide transparent services for facilitating business activity, including: provision of one-stop public service, disclosure of administrative information and processes

•          ICT based online service is the most democratic and unbiased service system. It offers equal opportunity to all races, genders, ethnic groups.

•          to provide networked services for efficient administration, including: computerization and integration, standardization of government administration

•          E-Government breaks the barrier of geographical diversity and makes the government services handy to all citizens at villages who are even not connected by roads and opens up many opportunities

•          It’s important to empower and motivate government employees to expect better service from them

Analyzing the ICT development of Nepal

old Article(http://technetnepal.net/blogs/prakash/archive/2010/06/07/analyzing-the-ict-development-of-nepal.aspx)

As we know Nepal is the country locked by the largest two countries India and China. The variation in the structure is also another geographical identification of Nepal. So Nepal was greatly influenced by the progress of the many countries in the region that had already welcomed the development of information technology (IT), particularly the two Asian superpowers, India and China. Nepal had witnessed India’s ability to carve out a market in the IT sector, and was hoping to find a place in the field. Today Nepal is also aware to recognize the importance of the production and use of information and communication technology (ICT) for competitiveness and growth and the need to incorporate national information infrastructures to sustain and expand their economies. There is no question why we need to acquire IT in developing country like Nepal; however we need to know that what role IT can play in development process of these countries. The far reaching impacts of IT are not only limited to industrial production. All economic sectors including agriculture, banking, commerce, health care, education, publishing, transportation are become fast flexible. If properly used in the developing country, IT can be the main factor in increasing productivity in public administration, communications, infrastructures, industry and agriculture.

Stages of development of ICT in Nepal

1971 Introduction of computer in the country for census (IBM1401)
1974 Establishment of the Electronic Data Processing Center
1982 First Private Overseas Investment in software development by establishing   company for export, Data Systems International (p) LTD.
1985 Distribution of Personal Computers in Nepal
1990 Liberalization on imports of equipment
1992 Establishment of Computer Association of Nepal
1996 Establishment of the Ministry of Science & Technology
1998 Telecommunications Act 1997 and Regulation
1998 Establishment of Nepal Telecoms Authority (NTA)
2000 Announcement of the first IT policy, “IT Policy 2000”
2001 Establishment of the National Information Technology Center(NITC) as ICT Implementation Body
2003 Establishment of the High Level Commission for Information Technology
2004 Telecommunication Policy 2004
2004 Electronic Transaction ordinance 2004
2006 Electronic Transaction Act Oct, 2006
2010 Announcement of IT Policy 2067

This is the overview of ICT development of Nepal. We have lot of experience for developing country toward the knowledge base society. Since the introduction of computer for census in 1972, the country made an early start compared to the other countries, including the establishment of organizations for computerization. However, in the 1980s and 1990s, Nepal slowed down its momentum to push forward the advancement of ICT industry. Starting from the 2000s, the government instituted its first ICT policy and in 2003 organized the HLCIT to take charge of national IT policies. In 2004, it promulgated the Electronics Transaction Act and now we have again the new review on IT policy 2000 and proposed the IT Policy 2067 as a measure of procedural simplification with a view to creating a hassle-free climate for the development of knowledge based Society and eliminate the poverty from Nepal.

We feel that this policy is a significant and important step in the right direction towards the developing the ICT sector and represent the society as knowledge based society. But however several challenges have beset Nepal’s efforts aimed at building upon the initial momentum that it gained in the ICT domain. Due to the lack of political constancy deterred Nepal from effectively capitalizing on the promise Unleashed by digital opportunities as the country found itself confronting a host of competing priorities ranging from the ones posed by security challenges to that of endemic poverty and poor governance. In the planning process, the government expressed its desire to meld Nepal into a knowledge-based society. The broad objective for the IT sector was to promote IT as a tool for social and economic development; to promote social development by using IT to improve agricultural, health, education, and other services and sectors; to promote economic development by establishing an IT park to produce and export low-cost software and eliminate the poverty from country which is the one of major problem for Nepal.

We have the experience of failure for completely implementing the Policy and over the last few years with scarce resources tied up in security efforts, implementation of the IT Policy has slipped from the government’s priority list. Although the institutional provisions have been put in place, the key implementing body is too under-resourced to effectively oversee implementation. We also know that e-governance in Nepal is enhancing but still not fully developed. But we can assume this process of finalizing the IT policy was a long but inclusive one.

Today we have still many problems. Political and Social Instability, Funding depend upon highly politicized and very limited facility is provided by government which is not enough and it is not fully utilized are problem in past years. So from learning the lesson from previous chapter of implementing and developing IT Policies we have to address every aspect that reflect IT Sectors. An IT Bill outlining action plans for the sector has been drafted and is awaiting Parliamentary approval. The Ministry of Science and Technology launched a subsidized programme to provide IT training. At least three of Nepal’s four universities have computer science or computer engineering degrees at the Bachelor level, and roughly 5,000 graduates are expected from these programmes over the next few years. The Ministry is planning to establish two new institutes: the Institute of Information Technology (in the IT park in Kathmandu) and the Institute of Technology (in Western Nepal, focusing on biotechnology and IT research).

At last the future directions can be viewed as although the institutional provisions have been put in place, the key implementing body HLCIT, NITC and Ministry of Science and Technology is too under-resourced to effectively oversee implementation. An implementation programme involving both the government and private sector still needs to be encouraged and supported to maximize the potential for IT in Nepal.