Old Article (http://technetnepal.net/blogs/prakash/archive/2010/07/22/egovernance-1-introduction.aspx)
I am trying to just making clear about egovernment and it’s condition in Nepal. In different program, seminar, different conference and in different presentation we option see and hear that every ICT personnal and expert were making their sound loud about it.But what actually is egoverment ???To make clear about it I take idea from different paper and presentation.so I specially like to thanks that personal Dr. Subarna shakya, Dr. Madan P. Pariyar and Adeel Ghayur
Different people are differently define the egoverment ; Some of people define Egovernment as digital governmental information and some of the people regard egovernment as consisting of creation of website, where information about political and government issues is presented.These defination are narrow and cannot conceptualize the multidimentional and complex defination of Egovernment. So I am forwarding some of general defination about this:
“Government’s use of technology, particularly web-based Internet applications, to enhance the access to and delivery of government information and service to citizens, business partners, employees, other agencies, and government entities,”
“the continuous optimization of service delivery, constituency participation, and governance by transforming internal and external relationships through technology, the Internet, and new media.”
e-Government has been defined as ‘the use of ICT to promote more efficient and effective government, facilitate more accessible government services, allow greater public access to information, and make government more accountable to citizens.
Abramson and Means egovernment can be defined as the electronic interaction between government ,the public and employees
World Bank e-Government is the government owned or operated system of information and Communication Technology that transform relation with citizens, the private sector and/or other government agencies so as to promote citizens ‘ empowerment, improve service delivery, strenghten accountability, increase transparency, or improve government efficiency.
That means egovernment is using an IT(information and Technology) by government agencies inorder to create the relation citizen, business and other government sectors.These technologies can serve a variety of different ends: better delivery of government services to citizens, improved interactions with businesses and industries, citizen empowerment through access of information, or more efficient government management.Such that we have revenue growth, reducing corruption, increasing transparency and profit, greater convenience as result of using it.
1. Rationalism Theory
New tools will be utilized to help in better decision making and optimizing governance processes. The theory in itself is divided into:
1. Ocean Theory: Application of e-governance and following the popular trend and adopting the ways of the leaders.
2. Peninsula Theory: Applying the tools for e-governance but at the same time taking steps to keep the cultural and traditional heritage and values within the community.
2. Island Theory
Island or Control Theory implies that the e-government tools would be used for better control of the populace. This theory is based on the concept of “information is control”.
3. Flood Theory
Also called Noise Theory is based on the fact that e-government tools such as Internet gives too much information for e-governance procedures such as decision making.
4. Cloud Theory
Cloud Theory implies that technology will not have much impact on decision making. Changes in governance and government are socially and politically driven and Internet is one of the means.
5. Tempest Theory
Tempest or Chaos theory implies that e-government tools such as Internet would make a government loose control – mainly by malpractices.
Importance of Egovernment
The importance of egovernment is closely inter-relaed with importance of good government in country.we can see that good government as in exercise of administrative,political and economic authority to manage affair and transaction of country in each and every level.The main importance of egovernment is to support and simplify egovernance for all parties, government, citizen and business.So I am trying to list out some points which make more clear about it’s objective and importance.
- Better delivery of government services to citizens
- Improved interactions with businesses ,industries, and citizen empowerment through access of information and Communication Technology.
- Supporting economic growth and poverty reduction, through improved access to ICTs.
- Strengthening tenets of good governance – efficiency, transparency, accountability, and inclusiveness
- 1024×768 Normal 0 false false false Fulfilling changed expectations of citizens –They expect the service from government as they get from private business.
- 1024×768 Normal 0 false false false Generating information and knowledge in line with socio-economic dynamism.
- 1024×768 Normal 0 false false false Ensuring citizen centricity (also extended to include businesses) and service orientation (amidst changing level of expectations at par with private sector entities)
An egovernment Model
The main part that can be distinruished in egovernment are government , citizen and business.so the main common interaction in egovernance are G2C(Government to Citizen), G2B(Government to Bosiness) and G2G(Government to Government) which is clearly shown in above figure.Gartner, an International Consultancy firm, has formulated a four phas e-government model.This can serve as a reference for government to position where a project fits in overall evolution of an egovernance strategy. Most government start by delivering online information, but public demand and internal efficiency soon require more complex services.According to Gartner, egovernance will mature according to following four phases:
- Information Presence
- Interaction intake process
- Transaction Complete transaction
- Transformation Integration and Changes
The model did not imply that all institution have to go through all phases and alla at the same time. On the contrary, in western world government institution are in only three phases 1, 2 or 3.